Population change and Iceland



Unit 1: Changing population


2. Changing populations and places

Geographic inquiry and concept(s)

Processes of population change and their effect on people and places

Geographic knowledge and understanding

Population change and demographic transition over time, including natural increase, fertility rate, life expectancy, population structure and dependency ratios

Case study or detailed examples

Neither required by the syllabus

Base knowledge and understanding


All IBDP geography lessons on geographyalltheway.com start with a set of 'Base knowledge and understanding' resources. These resources can be used by students who wish to approach the lesson prepared with exiting knowledge and their understanding refreshed.

Context - Population structure

Population pyramid - World
Population pyramid - Iceland
Population pyramid - Niger
Population pyramid - Japan


Screenshot or download and add to a single document population pyramids for the following countries:

  • Iceland
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Niger
  • UK
  • USA
  • UAE
  • Free choice
  • Free choice

Is it possible to group/classify the population pyramids. What classifications could you apply to the 10 populations pyramids that you have collected? Are there any other classifications that you could apply?

Context - Demographic transition over time - Iceland


How is Iceland's population changing? Examine Iceland's population growth, birth rate, death rate. Discuss the possibilities for Iceland's population focusing on the next 10-20 years.

Context - Demographic transition over time - beyond Iceland

Challenge task

  1. Go to DataBank - World Development Indicators
  2. Database: 1 selected [World Development Indicators]
  3. Country: 6 selected [China, India, Japan, Niger, UK, USA]
  4. Series: 5 selected [Population,total / Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people) / Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) / Fertility rate, total (births per woman) / Age dependency ratio (% of working-age population)]
  5. Time: 6 selected [2015 and 10 year intervals before that]
  6. Download the data > use a spreadsheet application to produce a graph for each series > each graph should have a legend, title, correctly labelled axis.
  7. Each graph needs to be added to a single document - after each graph there should be a table which has three rows (labels, Country 1 and Country 2) and four columns (Country, Obvious, Specific and Odd). You get to choose which 2 countries you focus upon from each graph and it does not need to be the same for each graph. Develop your skills of describing by using the tables to describe the graphs of the two countries you are focusing on - focusing on what is obvious, specific and odd.



Suggest two possible reasons for the falling rate of population increase in England and Wales. [2]